Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Updated: Sep 29



Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is defined as a neuro developmental disorder featuring with symptoms of inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity.


It is a complex, chronic, and heterogenous developmental disorder with typical onset in childhood and known persistence into adulthood. It is the most common neuro-developmental disorder with significant impact on the affected individual’s personal, social, academic, and occupational functioning and development. The levels of impairment are brought about by persistent displays of inattention, dis-organization, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity.


Aetiology

Research is continually being conducted by determining the cause(s) and risk factors and finding ways to manage and reduce the chances of a person having ADHD. The cause(s) and risk factors for ADHD are unknown, but recent studies link genetic factors with ADHD.


Neurotransmitter Involvement:

It is assumed to result from suboptimal dopamine levels in the synaptic cleft due to over expression of the presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT).


Familial Origin:

Numerous studies have proven a familial aggregation of ADHD.


Environmental Risk Factors:

Prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, premature birth, low birth weight, critical birth circumstances, and incongruities in parent–child interactions, such as difficulties in feeding the infant, etc. and socioeconomic risk factors (lower socioeconomic strata, single-parent home, maternal depression, antisocial behaviour in the father).